29 August 2017-Current Affairs

  1. Centre set to roll out new treatment for encephalitis
  2. minority educational institution
  3. Regular Floods in India’s big cities

1.  Centre set to roll out new treatment for encephalitis

  • Minocycline — an antibiotic typically used to treat severe acne — were found to work well on patients with acute encephalitis symptoms, who survived the first day of hospitalisation.
  • The researchers found that using the medicine reduced hospital stay but didn’t significantly improve overall mortality.




  1. minority educational institution
  • A minority educational institution is one that has been set up by either a linguistic or a religious minority group, to keep alive and foster what it considers its unique and special features. This may be recalling its past, its history, its education, or its texts.
  • The Constitution in the chapter of Fundamental Rights, Part III, explicitly provides for the right, through Article 30, titled “Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions” and Article 29 titled “ Protection of interests of minorities”
  • conflict between the fundamental principle of equality and the special rights conferred on these groups by the Constitution
    • Article 30(1) (“All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”) could seem to be in contradiction to Article 29(2), which says, “No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.”
    • While the Constitution goes well beyond just a formal notion of equality, the question does often arise whether it is an absolute right or one which is somewhat circumscribed.
    • Past judgments of Supreme court seemed to suggest that while the right of minorities to set up and establish institutions should be enjoyed fully, it would be subject to some regulation, especially if they were state-aided to any degree. In case of unaided institutions too, it sought to invoke larger principles which minority institutions ought to go by. 




  1. Regular Floods in India’s big cities

Bengaluru, Chennai, Mumbai, Srinagar, Delhi, Gurgaon, etc. are all examples of human intervention that have rendered a city unfit to deal with a deluge. The lack of planning and enforcement has resulted in significant narrowing of the waterways and filling in of the floodplain by illegal developments.

     Major Reasons

  • lack of drainage upgrade works
  • the encroachment and filling in the floodplain on the waterways
  • obstruction by the sewer pipes and manholes and relevant structures
  • deposits of building materials and solid wastes with subsequent blockage of the system
  • flow restrictions from under-capacity road crossings (bridge and culverts)

Blocking natural water bodies

  • They soak up excess rainfall and use it to replenish groundwater; inter-related drainage systems created by these ponds, streams, lakes and channels then release the excess water into larger water bodies — oceans and big rivers. Our cities are increasingly getting shorn of such ‘sponges’.
  • 98% of the famous lakes of Bengaluru are encroached, rendering the city vulnerable to flooding even after normal rain. Bengaluru had more than 250 lakes about 50 years ago. Today, fewer than 10 remain in a healthy state.
  • In the past 100 years, more than 50% of Srinagar’s lakes, ponds and wetlands have been encroached upon to construct buildings and roads.
  • Mumbai’s Mithi River had been blocked at every corner; there were encroachments and constructions on the riverbed and at the point where the river would discharge into the sea.
  • Brahmaputra floods
    • During the monsoon, its channels can’t take the huge volumes gushing down at high speed. Siltation and sedimentation in the channels compound the situation.
    • With increasing deforestation in the Eastern Himalayas, the run-off has increased, which means as the water rushes towards the plains, it carries along more sediment. The riverbed in the plains is full of sediment, impairing the Brahmaputra’s carrying capacity.
    • Guwahati’s bowl shape makes it prone to water logging; poor urban planning has increased its vulnerability
    • Wetlands that could have soaked up the rainwater or channelled them to the Brahmaputra are choked with garbage; they get clogged during heavy rain and the water spills on to the roads.