08 September 2017-Current Affairs

In News

  1. Army to induct women in military police
  2. Literacy programmes in India

  1. Army to induct women in military police
  • The Army has finalised a plan to induct women in the military police
  • The plan — being seen as a major step towards breaking gender barriers in the force — is to induct approximately 800 women in military police with a yearly intake of 52 personnel per year,
  • Currently, women are allowed in select areas such as medical, legal, educational, signals and engineering wings of the Army.
  • The role of the military police includes policing cantonments and army establishments, preventing breach of rules and regulations by soldiers, maintaining movement of soldiers as well as logistics during peace and war, handling prisoners of war and extending aid to civil police whenever required. 


  1. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/army-to-induct-women-in-military-police/article19643863.ece?homepage=true

  1. Literacy programmes in India
  • Nearly 74 per cent of Indian population has basic literacy skills ( was 18% in 1947). Over 95 per cent of the children are in school and nearly 86 per cent of young people are functionally literate.
  • Nearly 35 crore youth and adults are illiterate. About 40 per cent of schoolchildren do not acquire literacy skills with satisfactory proficiency even after completing elementary education.
  • Need for literacy
    • Literacy is the first step towards building a participatory, vibrant and more inclusive democracy. It helps individuals to access and exercise the various rights and entitlements provided to them under the Constitution.
    • Problems like poverty, infant mortality, population growth and gender inequality are better resolved in a literate society. Literacy enables individuals to access economic, political and social benefits.
    • In India, literacy can play an important role in empowering people as well as improving their quality of life — especially of women and those belonging to the disadvantaged groups of society.
  • History
    • The rulers of Travancore and Baroda expanded education opportunities.
    • Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, Welthy Fisher and Frank Laubach set up the Literacy House in Lucknow in 1953.
    • Active campaigns for adult literacy like the Grama Shikshan Mohim in 1959.
    • The Government of India’s National Literacy Mission in 1990s
  • Government Policies
    • The Saakshar Bharat Programme and the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan are the government’s key policy instruments in the realm of improving literacy.
    • Literacy programmes can enhance their value if they are creatively linked to the other initiatives of the government like the Swachh Bharat, Mission, Pradhan Mantri Ujjawala Yojana, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Digital India Mission and Skill India Mission
    • The Saakshar Bharat Programme
      • Focuses primarily on rural areas in low-female literacy districts.
      • Helped in the establishment of an institutional framework that promotes adult education centres up to the gram panchayat level.
      • Female literacy focus has potential multiplier effects, including better health outcomes and improvement of nutritional status.
      • More than a crore adult learners appear for the bi-annual Learners Assessment Tests conducted by the National Institute of Open Schooling.( 70 per cent of those who passed this year are women)
      • The National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA) is not only imparting basic literacy to adult learners but has also forged partnerships with various agencies to link literacy with other dimensions of socio-economic development like electoral, financial and legal literacy.
      • They are also encouraged to benefit from national programs like  Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana, etc.
      • In the new variant of the Saakshar Bharat Programme, school and college students are likely to be involved in teaching 
  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
    • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is Government of India’s flagship programme for achievement of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner, as mandated by 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory Education to the Children of 6-14 years age group, a Fundamental Right.
    • SSA is being implemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the entire country and address the needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations.
    • The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants.
    • Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additional teachers, while the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive training, grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic support structure at a cluster, block and district level.
    • SSA seeks to provide quality elementary education including life skills. SSA has a special focus on girl’s education and children with special needs. SSA also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide.
  • Way Forward
    • 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development envisages a “world with universal literacy”. To achieve this, the government has to lead the process but the civil society and the private sector should also play key roles.
    • two-pronged approach to be continued by the government
  1. Improve the quality of pre-primary and school education to ensure that all children graduating from school have the necessary literacy skills.
  2. Provide opportunities for learning to those who have never been to a school or have dropped out, and also to the young people and adults who need to acquire basic skills to expand their livelihood opportunities.
    • Digital learning materials can address the diverse learning needs of different age groups more effectively. Literacy can be made more meaningful if it is linked to the daily lives of the learners. Community learning centres can become the hubs of imparting literacy and community empowerment.